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Peptides- Definition, Uses, and Types

A peptide is a chain of amino acids. A peptide bond connects each of the amino acids, and they are transformed into proteins when they are arranged into larger, more complicated structures (usually containing 50 amino acids or more).

The body uses peptides for sale in USA in a variety of ways. As a result, a variety of pharmaceuticals rely on them as well.


Peptides may be divided into three primary categories:

• The number of amino acids in the chain is determined by: Polypeptides, on the other hand, generally include between 20 and 50 amino acids, while oligopeptides have just a handful. Two, three, and four amino acids are found in dipeptides, tripeptides, and tetrapeptides.
• Depending on their origin, whether they are animal or plant sourced.
• Human bodily functions as a basis for categorizing them

Anatomy and Physiology

The human body uses peptides in a variety of ways. Functions of specific peptides include: In the hypothalamus, a tiny brain region near the base of the brain, the peptide hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is released. Vasopressin serves a variety of purposes.

When the kidneys absorb water, it controls the quantity of water present in the fluid space surrounding cells (extracellular fluid). Blood pressure increases as a result of the vasoconstrictor properties of vasopressin when it is present in high concentrations. Consumption of alcoholic beverages inhibits the vasopressin hormone, resulting in increased urination.

Peptide hormone oxytocin comprises nine amino acids and is generated by the pituitary gland (in the brain). During labor, it stimulates the uterus to contract. During nursing, oxytocin also plays a vital part in the milk ejection reflex ("put down"). "Cuddle hormone" or "love hormone" oxytocin is produced when individuals snuggle together or form social bonds.

In the immune system, these peptides are primarily active and are assumed to be antibacterial, therefore helping the healing process of wounds. Renin-angiotensin system peptide hormones: angiotensins, which play a role in regulating blood pressure. Sodium retention in the kidneys is aided by the production of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, which they stimulate.

Medicinal Purposes

The anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties of peptides are only a few of their many properties. Peptide medications have been licensed in the United States and other countries across the globe as of 2017.

Two types of peptides are employed in medicines: natural and synthesized.

• Diabetes insipidus is treated by peptides such as vasopressin.
• Antidiuretic hormone deficiency may also be treated with these medications.
• Natural antioxidant carnosine is present in the heart, kidneys, intestines, skin, brain, muscles, and dipeptide form. Several illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease, brain ischemia, Parkinson's disease, Schistosomiasis, and epilepsy, may benefit from its usage. Preventing the development of cataracts in the eyes may also be an advantage.
• A peptide known as a defensin has broad-spectrum antibacterial properties. At now, synthetic defensins are being investigated as potential HIV-1 treatments.
• When it comes to iron absorption, hepcidin plays an important role. Anemia may be diagnosed by measuring its levels in the body.
• Inflammatory bowel illness may benefit from using the peptide (IBD).
• Hepatitis C, pneumonia, HIV, and certain germs may be treated using antimicrobial peptides. These peptides may be applied topically, orally, or injected intravenously (IV).

Vendredi 10 Juin 2022