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Les devises numériques pourraient perturber le système financier mondial

Les devises numériques pourraient perturber la capacité des banques centrales à exercer un contrôle sur l'économie ou à émettre de la monnaie a déclaré ce jour la "Bank for International Settlements" (BIS).

Le rapport décrit comment les monnaies numériques telles que le Bitcoin ainsi que son livre décentralisée sous-jacent, la blockchain, pourraient avoir un impact sur les banques centrales et sur le système financier mondial au sens large.

Tout en soulignant que de tels résultats incombent à "une adoption généralisée", la BIS peint un avenir possible dans lequel sa capacité à mener la politique monétaire, à évaluer le flux d'argent ou même à générer des revenus sur la monnaie qu'elle émet devient limité.

Pour aller plus loin vous trouverez ci-dessous le communiqué original ainsi que le rapport (PDF 25 pages en anglais).
d137_2.pdf d137-2.pdf  (514.25 Ko)

CPMI report on digital currencies

The Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures (CPMI) (1) today released its report on Digital currencies (2).

Innovations in the payments domain can have important implications for the safety and efficiency of the financial system and thus are monitored by many central banks. In this regard, Benoît Cœuré, Chairman of the CPMI, said: "Digital currencies and distributed ledgers are innovations that could have an impact on many areas, not only on payment systems and services. Even if today's schemes do not endure in their present form, it is likely that other products, services and business models based on the same underlying technology will continue to emerge and develop. This might lead to changes in the way that FMIs and other market participants operate."

The emergence of digital currencies was noted in previous reports by the CPMI on Innovations in retail payments (2012) and Non-banks in retail payments (2014). There are two key features of digital currencies.

- The first is the assets themselves (such as bitcoins). These assets can have some of the characteristics of a commodity and some of a currency. Currently, their monetary features (such as their use as a means of payment) are often more prominent, yet, these assets are not typically issued in or connected to a sovereign currency, are not a liability of any entity, are not backed by any authority and have no intrinsic value.

- The second feature is the technology used. Particularly noteworthy is the use of distributed ledgers. Most financial transactions are made via a centralised infrastructure, where a trusted entity clears and settles transactions. Distributed ledgers are innovative because they allow transactions in the absence of trust between the parties and without the need for intermediaries.

The development of digital currencies using distributed ledger technology is an innovation with potentially broad applications. In the financial market infrastructures (FMIs) sector, wider use of distributed ledgers by new entrants or incumbents could have implications extending beyond payments, including their possible adoption by some FMIs and more broadly by other networks in the financial system.


(1) The CPMI promotes the safety and efficiency of payment, clearing, settlement and related arrangements, thereby supporting financial stability and the wider economy. The CPMI monitors and analyses developments in these arrangements, both within and across jurisdictions. It also serves as a forum for central bank cooperation in related oversight, policy and operational matters, including the provision of central bank services. The CPMI is a global standard setter in this area. The CPMI secretariat is hosted by the BIS. More information about the CPMI, and all its publications, can be found on the BIS website:

(2) Report on Digital currencies

Digital currencies, and especially those which have an embedded decentralised transfer mechanism based on the use of a distributed ledger, are an innovation that could have a range of impacts on various aspects of financial markets and the wider economy. These could include potential disruption to business models and systems, as well as facilitating new economic interactions and linkages.

Currently, such schemes are not widely used or accepted, and they face a series of challenges that could limit their future growth. However, some digital currency schemes have demonstrated that their underlying technology could feasibly be used for peer-to-peer transactions in the absence of a trusted third party. Such technology may have potential to improve some aspects of the efficiency of payment services and financial market infrastructures (FMIs) in general. In particular, these improvements might arise in circumstances where intermediation through a central party is not currently cost-effective.

This report considers the possible implications of interest to central banks arising from these innovations.

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